International Council for Science (ICSU) and the Challenges of Big Data in Science
Professor Ray Harris in Research Trends (Issue 30).
The Fourth Paradigm:
The enormous amounts of data now available to science and to society at large have stimulated some authors to say that we are in the Fourth Paradigm of data-intensive science (1). The First Paradigm was the period of observation, description and experimentation characterised by early scientists and explorers such as Ptolemy and Ibn Battuta.